Set 2 of my blogs Consistently Under Construction.

A few snippets from my published article on the above topic.

Percent (%) or Percentage (%) calculations are sometimes avoided by those who are more adept at or more predisposed towards other non-numbers subjects.

But the reality is that percents can be calculated by various methods without understanding the math behind the eventual answer.

Non-number cruncher folk should choose a method that they are comfortable with and use it with confidence.

Every mobile phone or cellphone contains a calculator, and conversion applications (apps) abound, so there is really no need to revert to pen-'n'-paper methods for calculating almost anything. However, for a single calculation or conversion the pen-'n'-paper or the in-the-mind calculation or conversion is favored because it is more swift.

Percent, or more correctly, per cent, is a term that means per century or per 100.

It divides an amount of something in question into an imaginary 100 parts.

Then we can state part-reductions, for example in sales, or part-increases, for example in pay rises, with some ease, without referring to the exact or absolute amount.

Percent works on any amount of anything whether currency, weights, liquids, areas, sizes, thicknesses, or anything that can be considered a quantity or a quality.

Demonstrating with examples is a good way of explaining the methods.

A few snippets from my published article on the above topic.

The default decimal, Base_{10}, system ideally should be annotated 0, 1_{10}, 2_{10}, 3_{10}, 4_{10}, 5_{10}, 6_{10}, 7_{10}, 8_{10}, 9_{10}, but the subscripts are omitted in everyday use.

The Decimal Base_{10} system columns

Column Name 10Mils Mils 100Ths 10Ths Ths 100s 10s Units

Base_{10} Column Value 10^{7} 10^{6} 10^{5} 10^{4} 10^{3} 10^{2} 10^{1} 10^{0}

Decimal Column Value 10Mil_{10} 1Mil._{10} 100Th._{10} 10Th._{10} 1000_{10} 100_{10} 10_{10} 1_{10}

The Binary, Base_{2}, system has two discrete numeric values of 0 and 1_{2}, equivalent to 0 and 1_{10}.

Column values are shown for an 8-bit computer binary word, for a 16-bit word the MSB column would be 2^{15} (32,76810).

Column Name (MSB)128s 64s 32s 16s 8s 4s 2s 1s (LSB)

Base_{2} Column Value 2^{7} 2^{6} 2^{5} 2^{4} 2^{3} 2^{2} 2^{1} 2^{0}

Decimal Column Value 128_{10} 64_{10} 32_{10} 16_{10} 8_{10} 4_{10} 2_{10} 1_{10}

The Octal, Base_{8}, system has eight discrete numeric values of 0, 1_{8}, 2_{8}, 3_{8}, 4_{8}, 5_{8}, 6_{8}, and 7_{8}, equivalent to 0, 1_{10}, 2_{10}, 3_{10}, 4_{10}, 5_{10}, 6_{10}, and 7_{10}.

Column Name 32768s 4096s 512s 64s 8s 1s (Units)

Base_{8} Column Value 8^{5} 8^{4} 8^{3} 8^{2} 8^{1} 8^{0}

Decimal Column Value 32768_{10} 4096_{10} 512_{10} 64_{10} 8_{10} 1_{10}

The Hexadecimal, Base_{16}, system has sixteen discrete alpha-numeric values of 0, 1_{16}, 2_{16}, 3_{16}, 4_{16}, 5_{16}, 6_{16}, 7_{16}, 8_{16}, 9_{16}, A_{16}, B_{16}, C_{16}, D_{16}, E_{16}, and F_{16}, equivalent to 0, 1_{10}, 2_{10}, 3_{10}, 4_{10}, 5_{10}, 6_{10}, 7_{10}, 8_{10}, 9_{10}, 10_{10}, 11_{10}, 12_{10}, 13_{10}, 14_{10}, and 15_{10}.

Column Name 65536s 4096s 256s 16s 1s (Units)

Base_{16} Column Value 16^{4} 16^{3} 16^{2} 16^{1} 16^{0}

Decimal Column Value 65536_{10} 4096_{10} 256_{10} 16_{10} 1_{10}

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